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There are two basic kinds of telescopes for the backyard observer, reflector and refractor, and they differ in the way they gather and focus light onto the eyepiece. The type discussed in this article will be the reflector telescopes. These telescopes use a series of large and small mirrors to bend and amplify the light from the stars and planets. It's hard to imagine that by just using mirrors you will be able to see the rings of Saturn or the pinwheels of distant galaxies - but that is how it works.


There are two basic designs of reflector telescopes - the Newtonian and the Cassegrain. The Newtonian Helpful hints design was first created by Sir Issac Newton, the noted physicist of the 17th century. He concluded from his work in optics that the lenses of the period always suffered from the dispersion of light into colors (called chromatic aberration). In 1668 he built the first Newtonian Telescope using a mirror as the objective to bypass the problem of the chromatic aberration.

This design is quite simple and very popular with novice stargazers. There is usually one large mirror at the base of the telescope tube which focuses the image onto another flat mirror that then sends the image to the eyepiece where it can be magnified.

The second design is the Cassegrain type. This design uses a concave primary mirror at the base of the telescope with a convex secondary mirror facing it at the top of the tube. The light comes in through the top of the telescope and is reflected by the primary mirror onto the smaller mirror. This mirror in turn sends the light back through a hole in the primary mirror to the eyepiece. This design is slightly more complex and therefore more expensive, but both work very well.

Advantages Of Reflector Telescopes

The reflector telescope is a good all-around telescope and has several advantages over the refractor type telescopes. On the pro side, the design of reflector telescopes is somewhat less intricate than that of refractor telescopes. This usually makes these telescopes less expensive, at least on the lower end. It also allows more magnifying power in a more compact design. The larger models really give more value for the money compared to refractor telescopes. The fast focal ratio makes reflector telescopes very effective for viewing faint objects deep in space.

Disadvantages Of Reflector Telescopes

Although the reflector telescope is a good all-around telescope especially for the amateur astronomer, it is not without some drawbacks. The alignment of the mirrors is somewhat delicate and transportation can be a problem if not done very carefully. The mid-size to larger versions of these telescopes tend to be bulkier than the refractor models. The lower end models tend to produce a distorted image and there is a considerable amount of maintenance involved in cleaning and aligning the mirrors.

As with any telescope, there are always pros and cons to consider when looking to purchase. The reflector telescopes are effective and simple to use making them the best deal for amateur astronomers and star gazers. It is definitely worthwhile to consider a reflector telescope when you are researching which telescope will be right for you.

There are a lot of people who have an interest in becoming a game designer but are unsure whether or not to make it a career. The main purpose of this article is to provide information which will help you make this choice. Many different variables should be taken into account and below is a list with some of the pros and cons of being a game designer.


Designing games is fun. Creating them as a whole is very enjoyable as is working on all the different game mechanics and coming up with new and interesting concepts. Many times as a player, you might think how something in that game could be changed for the better. When it's your job, you not only get to think of these ideas but also put them into practice.

You also get rewarded for creativity and innovation. Creating games in itself can feel very rewarding and when there's a positive reaction to your game, it is even better. Contrary to many professions where things are predetermined, game designers are constantly seeking things that are new and improving things that already exist.

Though the salary may not be as high as other professions, there are a lot of professionals in this industry who do earn pretty well even though the game design market has not existed as long as other industries. Several industry-related sources indicate that the salaries for this profession range from $50,000 to $80,000 annually and averaging $57,500. Some companies also give bonuses and shares of the profits.

There is a variety of niche markets which are opening up. For example, you might choose to design games for PC, console, mobile or web. Then again, your choice might be based on the game genre you like best, such as: FPS, RTS, MMORPG, puzzle, sport, etc. With this variety, it is possible for game designers to choose the area which they like the most and learn to create games in those areas.


Long hours. Not only does practicing your skills for creating games take a long while, working in designing the games also takes up a lot of time. The game designing business is also well known for employees having to work exhaustively during crunch periods, which can often span several months.

You may have to work on games that your not very interested in. Due to the incredible growth of this industry, and the immense number of games being created, the probability of this happening isn't very high. Even if this does happen, it can be turned into something positive if it later results in some sort of promotion, an increase in pay or equips you with new skills.

With the growth of the game design industry, the competition is also increasing. While there are new jobs opening constantly, the competition is becoming more fierce. Of course, this just means you need to be well prepared.

As with any profession, there are both pros and cons to being a game designer. Anyone that has a passion for games, has a keen sense of problem solving and a good dose of creativity, will find a job in game design a fun and rewarding option in a fast growing industry that has a promising future.